Nonwovens| Characteristics | Types | Applications

Have you ever wondered filters are made out of which fabric? or your car liners or the fabric which is used in the classroom over the wooden duster?

The answer to this question is Nonwoven


Nonwoven fabrics are products made of parallel-laid, cross laid, or randomly laid fibre webs bonded with applied adhesive or thermoplastic fibers under the application of heat and pressure.

Nonwoven fabrics made of a fibrous layer which may be a carded web, fiber web a system of random laid oriented fibres or threads possibly combined with textile or non textile materials such as conventional fibers, plastic films, foam layers and forming with them mechanical Bond or chemical bonded textile product.

Characteristics properties of nonwoven fabrics

1. Higher flexural rigidity of non fabrics

2. The tensile strength and elongation of non fabrics of different types are dependent on the amount of exploitation of the fibre strength in the given binding or bonding structure.

Requirement of fibres of non woven

1. Processing technique of method of production

2. Wear properties of the fabric and use

3. Chemical composition and structure of the fibre

4. Physical properties of the fibre

5. Solubility

Types of nonwovens

1. Laminated fabric generally mechanical and chemical bonded

2. Fabric with fibrous layer

Method of producing the nonwoven fabric

1. Wet process which uses paper making machineries

2. Dry web process which involves the use of carding or air laying of fibres

Nonwoven production stages

Fibre or filament → Web forming process → Web bonding process → Finishing

End-use application of nonwoven:

Nonwovens has a great market and is used in many applications as mentioned  the non woven fabric is made from fibres laid in different manner andr the fibres are bonded by mechanical chemical or by thermal means. Here are different applications of nonwovens:

1. Filtration

  • Wet
  • Dry

Non woven fabrics used in wet filtration include those made by both the paper-making process and of dry process.  Tea bags, coffee filters, milk and dairy products filters, edible oil drinking water, support and Drainage fabrics, automotive air, oil and fuel filters.

Nonwoven fabrics are also used in dry filtration including dust filtration in power plants, foundries, cement floor, and industrial face mask in the workplace such as coat fired boilers, filters for Clean rooms, filters for removing toxic material, smoke intake filters for internal combustion engines, air compressor filters, household vacuum cleaners.

2. Nonwoven in the electrical industry:

Non woven fabrics have been in the electrical and electronic industry as high temperature insulation material. High-temperature noncomposites are being used in dry Transformers in some electrical application, nonwoven composites are being used as flame barrier or heat barrier.

Cable wrapping tapes for binding separation water blocking heat barrier or partial conductors made from non woven fabric because of high flexibility non frying, non creasing and highly porous nature of the nonwoven tapes they are preferred over inexpensive woven or paper tapes.

Nonwoven fabrics for use In cable wrapping are generally made from synthetic fibres that are nonbiodegradable, non hygroscopic, anti-mildew, rot resistant have high thermal resistance, and possess good ageing characteristics.

3. Battery separators

 The new improved battery separators made from thinner web and low weight have allowed design flexibility in developing batteries for newer car models.

4. Automotive industry

 Non Wovens are used as a carpet backing for floor in seat construction and as sound insulation pads under the Hood and carpet exterior body panel reinforcement.

5. Roofing fabric

Glass fibre Matt and polyester spun bonded fabrics have proven quite successful in providing lightweight roof decks and the ability to withstand mechanical and thermal stresses.

6.  Agricultural application

Thermally bonded lightweight and polypropylene spun bonded fabrics have been used for protecting crops they provide high permeability to light and water due to their lightweight they do not cause damage to the plant due to abrasion

7. Health care products

In the medical surgical area the use of disposable diapers barrier gowns resistant to marks sterilization wraps shoe covers Towles, washcloth and other materials such as dressing,, gloves, pad absorbent aprons.

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