Fabric Defects | Processing defects | Weaving Defects | Yarn Defects | Milling Defects | Piling & Raising Defects

Fabric Defects | Processing defects | Weaving Defects | Yarn Defects | Milling Defects | Piling & Raising Defects

Processing Defects:

Blurred or Dark Patch: 

An unwanted blotch in a printed fabric results in a blurred patch.


Bowing is a condition of the fabric wherein the warp and weft yarns do not keep at right angles to each other.

Dye Bar:

A bar in the weft direction due to a difference in the colour or shade of the dye used.

Dyestuff Stain:

An unwanted coloured mark on a fabric qualifies as a dye stain.

Defects caused by Hanging Threads:

A break in the pattern of the printed fabric caused by hanging threads.

Misprint or absence of print:

A misprint can be one or more of the following:

  • The printing is not as per the required design.
  • The outlines and colours in the design do not remain in their proper place.
  • A bare place without any printing.

Patchy or Streaky or Uneven Dyeing:

The fabric is characterised by an area of light or heavy dyeing along And across the width of the fabric. Also, light or heavy dyed patches or light and dark lines appear on the cloth. It also includes shade variation and heavy or light dyeing on selvedges.


The entangling of fibres during washing, dry cleaning or while being worn which form balls or pills and stand on the surface of a fabric and are of such density that light can not pass through them.

Shading or Listing:

A gradual change of shade from selvedge to the body of the fabric (called the centre to selvedge) or a gradual change of shade from one selvedge to another selvedge (called selvedge to selvedge).

Uneven Printing or Tinting:

In a printed fabric the design at one place is bold as required, while at another place the same is hazy, light and unclear.

Water Mark:

An unwanted ripple effect/light mart< produced on the fabric is known as a watermark.

Bleaching Spot:

The fabric is characterised by a yellow tint in the bleached cloth. In bleached goods, such a difference will not be acceptable.

White Spot:

The fabric is characterised by a white spot on an otherwise well dyed adjacent cloth.

Weaving Defects

Broken Ends Woven in a Bunch:

This defect is caused by a bunch of broken ends woven in the fabric

Broken Pattern:

A broken pattern is the non-continuity of a weave/design/pattern.

Double End:

When two or more ends unintentionally get woven as one. This defect is characterised by a thick bar running parallel to the warp.


A float is the improper interlacement of warp and weft threads in the fabric over a certain area.


Gout  is a foreign matter usually  lint or wastes accidentally woven into the fabric.

Hole, Cut or Tear:

Generally, a cut or hole can be seen in the fabric. It may be due to many factors.


An extra piece of yarn woven into the fabric in the vicinity of the selvedge

Local Distortion:

Distortion occurs when there is the displacement of warp and/or weft threads from their normal position.

Missing Ends:

The fabric is characterised by a gap parallel to the warp. The number of ends missing may be one or more.

Oil or Other Stain:

These are spot defects of oil, rust, grease or other stains found in the fabric.

Oily Weft:

Streaks of dirty and oily weft appearing across the width of the cloth. Which can be full or partial.

Oily or Soiled Ends:

These are oily or soiled warp threads.

Reed Marks:

A pronounced warp way crack caused by a damaged or defective reed

Selvedge Defect:

These are different defects appearing at the selvedge.

Slough off:

A slough-off is a bunch of weft woven into the fabric.


Ruptured cloth structure characterised by many broken warp ends and floating picks.


A single thread float either in the warp or weft way.It is very prominent in case of different colours of the warp and weft.


A short length of yarn, mainly the weft, which has spontaneously doubled back on itself results in snarls.

Untrimmed Loose Threads:

Any hanging threads on the face of the fabrics are termed loose threads.

Weft Bar:

An unwanted bar, running across the full width of a piece which differs in appearance from the adjacent normal fabric.

Weft Crack:

A narrow streak running parallel with weft threads caused due to absence of weft.

Yarn Defects

Broken filament:

Occurs when the individual filaments constituting the main yarn are broken.

Coloured Flecks:

Presence of coloured foreign matter In the yarn.


Occur when broken threads are pieced together by improper knotting.


A slub is a bunch of fibres having less twist or no twist and has a wider diameter compared to normal spun yarn.

Slubby weft:

A slubby weft is the occurrence of slubs at frequent intervals in the weft yarn.

Piling & Raising Defect

Uneven or Loose Piles:

Uneven or loose piles occur when there is a variation in the pile height over the surface of the fabric. In case of raised fabric, if the raising is uneven at certain places it shows patches or an unevenly raised surface.

Pile less spot:

In terry and velvet fabrics a pile-less spot is a spot without the pile where it should have been. In case of raised fabric, if the raising is uneven on certain spots it shows a patch.

Broken pattern due to Defective Piles:

A broken pattern is the result of non-continuity of the design/pattern in the pile fabric.

Milling Defects:

Uneven Milling:

Uneven matting together of fibres result in uneven milling.

Mill Rigs:

The creases produced in milling is known as mill rigs. 

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