Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) || COVID 19 || Precaution

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Textile Sphere on PPE Kit

Prevention of infection and control measures include hand hygiene and personal protective equipment (PPE). Protective equipment consists of garments which aid to protect the healthcare workers or other people to prevent get an infection. This kit usually consist of standard precautions: like masks, gown, and gloves. If there is any blood or airborne infection which may comprise of face protection masks or face shields, goggles, coveralls, head cover, gloves and boots.
There is a clear evidence of human to human transmission of COVID-19 it spreads mainly through respiratory droplets which are produced when people cough or sneeze, it also spreads through containment surfaces or objects. Hence, personal protective equipments (PPEs) are designed to safeguard the healthcare workers by minimizing the exposure to the biological agents.

Basic setting about non-woven used in the preparation of PPE kit:
A PPE kit when used properly can provide adequate results. To develop the coveralls generally three layer fabric is used which is termed as S-M-S fabric (spun bond and melt blown or their combinations).

General description of the S-M-S fabric:
  • The S-M-S fabric is a medical fabric made of polypropylene.
  • This fabric offers high tensile strength, provides good toughness. It is also soft, can be easily draped and easy to work with. 
  • This non-woven fabric provides fluid and particulate barrier to protect the health workers without sacrificing mobility and comfort.
  • It is light-weight and resistant to tear and punctures. 
  • Further this fabric has unique features like repellence from alcohol, blood, it is resistance to mildew, bacteria and is extra soft plus hydrophobic. 
  • It is a three layer non-woven material having filter efficiency of 99% of 3 micron particles and it should be ISI specified. 
  • It is manufactured by spun bond- melt blown- spun bond process which offers excellent water repellency.

While manufacturing the S-M-S fabric, a layer of PP melt blown is sandwiched between two spun bond layers where melt blown function as a barrier to fluid transmission forming permanent hydrophobic. It is single use fabric, it can be reuse in some cases but for that it should be sterilized. The fabric is of 40-43 GSM.

Components of PPE Kit:

Face shield and goggles:
Since the human to  human transmission of COVID 19 spreads majorly due to contamination of mucous of eyes, nose and mouth. Here the face shields come into play. The googles are made of flexible frame.

Gowns and coveralls:
They are designed to protect torso of the health care provide us from the exposure to virus. As discussed earlier the material used for manufacturing gowns is the S-M-S fabric . It is impermeable to blood and other fluids.

The mask should be properly shaped it should not be collapsed shoul provide high filtration efficiency, good breathability and fluid resistance.

Nitrile gloves are preferred over latex gloves as resists chemicals but mostly latex gloves are used. It help to prevent infection which may spread from hands.

Shoe and Head Cover:
This cover are made of impermeable fabric to be use over shoes to facilitate personal protection and head covers to protect head and neck.

All items to be supplied meet to be accompanied certificate of analysis from national or international organization indicating conformity to standards.

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