TS003- Nanotechnology in Textile Industry


Nanotechnology in Textile Industry
Isha Agarwal
Department of Textile Technology
DKTE Engineering College ,Icchalkaranji, India
Abstract:
Nanotechnology has real commercial potential for the textile industry. This is mainly due to the fact that the desired properties can be imparted in the fabrics which often do not lead to permanent effects, and will lose their funtions after laundering or wearing. Nanotechnology can provide high durability for fabrics, because nanoparticles have large surface area to volume ratio and high surface energy thus presenting better affinity for fabrics and leading to an increase durability. The diameter to length ratio is very small anofibres, fine yarns can be spun using those nanofibres. Other nanomaterials can be utilised and be they can replace the materials from which the conventional machine parts are produced. The working efficiency will be better and maintainence required will be less compartively. The production rate can be increased owing to the above statements. Coating of nanoparticles on fabrics or nanoparticle membrane or core on/in the yarns can prove advantageous without affecting the original softness, hand feel and other properties.


Introduction to Nanotechnology:
One of the biggest scientific trends of the 21^st century has been focused on something incredibly small: nanotechnology.Nanotechnology refers to a field of applied science and technology whose theme is the control and fabrication of matter or devices or materials on the atomic and molecular scale, generally in between scale 0.1-100 nano meters or smaller.it conjures up images of fabulous new materials, lighter and stronger then steel. Others envision robots that clean plaque from our arteries and tartar from our teeth. Nanotechnology is multidisciplinary field, drawing fields such as applied physics, materials science, interface and colloid science, device physics, supra molecular chemistry, self-replicating machines and robotics, chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, biological engineering, textile engineering, and electrical engineering. Nanotechnology was first introduced in 1959, in a talk by the Nobel Prize-winning physicist Richars Feynman, entitled " There's plenty of Room at the Bottom". 
Two main approaches are used in nanotechnology:
Firstly comes the "bottom-up" approach, where the materials are devices are built from molecular atoms which assemble themselves chemically by principles of molecular recognition. 
In the "top-down" approach, nano-objects are constructed from larger entities without atomic level control. The bottom up manufacturing technique, opposes the usual technique of cutting away the material until you have a completed component or product. Nanotechnology will be a bottom-up technology, building upward from thr molecular scale. it will bring a revolution in human abilities like that brought by agriculture or power machinery. Nanotechnology seems to be where the world is headed if technology keeps advancing and competition practically guarantees that advances will continue.
Nanotechnology will give better control of molecular building blocks, of ow they move and go together to form more complex objects. Molecular manufacturing will make things by building from the bottom up, starting with the smallest possible building blocks.


Blossoming sectors of Nanotechnology:
  • Nanotechnology: Aiding the Environment.
  • Nanomedicine.
  • Nanomaterials.
  • Nanoparticles and Colloid.
  • Nanoelectronics
  • Nanoengineering Devices


Importance of Nanoscale:

The Greek word "nano" refers to a reduction of size, or time, by 10-9 whcih is one thousand times smaller than a micron.
One nanometer = 1nm
                          =10 raised to -9 meter
                          = 1/1000000 of a milimeter 
                          = 1/1000 of a micron
                          = 10 Angstroms
The human hair is roughly 1/10 mm = 100000 nm.

  • A typical cell or the sixe of the smallest individual items perceptible to the average naked eye is 1/40 mm = 25000 nm.
  • A red blood cell is roughly 10000 nm.
  • A DNA strand is about 2 nm wide.
  • A typical atom is roughly 0.1-0.2 nm.

Nanomaterials Utilised in Textiles:
Nanomaterials are are study materials having unique properties arising from their nanoscale dimensions.
Nanomaterials used on large scale for textile pirposes includes:
  • Carbon black nonparticles or nanofibres
  • Carbon nanotubes
  • Metal oxide nanoparticles.
  • Graphite nanofibres.
  • Nanosilicates.

Due to utilisation of these materials the fibre strands and fabrics formed show great results. They show tremendously increased extent of different properties and characteristics, which are convenient for human use. Use of nanotecnology in textile industry increased the durability of fabrics, its comfortness and hygenic properties.Different properties such as water repellance, anti- static properties, wrinkle and criss resistance, toughness, abrassion resistance, chemical resistance, UV protection, electrically conductive, light weight and tensile strength gets enhanced and improves. For advantageous use of textile materials they should possess these properties. Specific properties for particular funtions are necessary in household as well as industrial applications. This properties of fibre and fabrics plays the most vital role in their better utilisation. Progress and advancing of inducing this properties or creating textile materials which exhibit them is required as the demand for textile has been increasing, to meet those expectations nanotechnology has been a aiding hand. The above mentioned properties each have their own importnace and purpose to serve, as the application changes the properties required for that changes. Nanotechnology helps to acheive this as well as ir reduces the cost pf production of textiles. Nanotechnology also many  adavntages over conventional processes in terms of economy, energy saving, eco-MEtmaterials on a microscopic scale for later use and release under control movement and thus reduce the chain mobility of the system.



Nanofibres:
Nanofibres are fibres with diameter in the nanometer range. Nanofibres can be generated from different polymers and hance have different physical properties  and application potential. The synthetic polymer nanofibres are made from nylon, acrylic, polycarbonate among polysulfones, and fluropolymers among other polymers. Due to its molecular level structure their main application lies in making sportwear. Producing sportswar from nanofibres makes them more vapor permeable and water resistance. Sportwear textile with nanofibre membrane inside is based on the modern nanofibre technology where the core of the membrane consists of fibres with a diameter 1000x tinner than human hair. In the language of numbers, the nonofibre textile brings the following parameters: RET 1.0-4.8 vapor permeability and 10000 mm to 30000 mm water column. Nanofibre apparel and shoe membranes consist of polyurethane so its production is not harmful to nature. Membranes to sportswear made from nanofiber are recyclable.



Metal Oxides Nanoparticles:
The engineered metal oxides nanoparticles (MNOPS) are among the widest used manufactured nanomaterials because of their unique properties. THe properties that make the nanophase structures indispensable tools in modern nanotechnology are their various nonlinear optical propertiles, higher ductility, cold welding properties, unique catalytic, sensitivity and selective activity. Using metal oxiced nanoparticles in production of textiles imparts photocatakytic properties in the textile. The textile formed are UV protected. An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth. Metal oxide oriented textiles show similar kind of action. They are chemically inert and doesnt let microorganism or bacteria deteriote the fabric or yarn quality, to conclude they behave as antimicrobial agents.

Carbon Nanotubes:
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are tubes made of carbon with diameters typically measured in nanometers. Carbon nanotubes are one of the most commonly mentioned building blocks of nanotechnology. WIth one hundred times the tensile strength of steel, thermal conductivity better than all but the purest diamond. Nanotubes comes in a variety of structure: long. short, single walled, multi walled, oen, closed, with different spiral structures, etc.
CNT based yarns are suitable for applications in energy and electrochemical water treatment when coated with an ion exchange membrane. Most of the CNT based yarns could replace copper as a winding material. Most of the fibres use fillers such as nanosilicates as well as single wall and multi wall carbon nanotubes. Fibres spun of pure buckytubes have been demonstrated and are undergoing rapid development, along with buckytube composite fibres. CNT reinforced polymer composite materials are used developing multi functional textiles having superior strength, toughness, lightweight, and high electrical conductivity. Such super strong fibres will have applications including body and vehicle Armour, transmission line cables, woven fabrics and textiles.



Limits and Downsides of Nanotechnology:
  • The increase in usage of nanotechnology will provide new solutions to problems. The difference in implementing this solutions will require change. This changes will possibly result into loss of jobs in the traditional industries.
  • Bringing bout big hanges disrupt the initial plans and the next step is to cope up with that changes.
  • Development of cheap and efficient alternative energy souces by nanotechnology ca affect on economy of petroleum industry.
  • Atomic weapons can now be more accessible and can be made more powerful and destructive.
  • Nanoparticles are of very small sixe, inhalation of this may resukt in health issues.
  • Presently development of nanoparticles is very difficult, thus their manufacturing require a great sum of capital.

References:


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15 Comments

  1. A very subtle and very simple explanation of a such a hard topic to understand is a talent of a great writer. Very well written !!!

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  2. Good study ... Sir I am also done some research work in this topic regarding nano-composites...
    This information is really helpful for Freshers ...πŸ‘

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  3. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  4. Nice work. Easy and simple to understand.

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  5. Explains all the details in simpler way. Looking for more such articles.

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  6. Good explaination and detailed info

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  7. Keep up the good work.looking forward to other works and the final result.

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  8. One of the most rapidly developing and interesting topic.

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  9. Good going. The way the ideas have been expressed and arranged is very well.

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