TS008-Nanotechnology in Textile Industry

Nanotechnology in Textile Industry
Sunil Kajave, Rahul Prasad
Department of Textile Technology
DKTE Engineering College , Icchalkaranji, India
In recent days nano textile materials have shown a great potential to be used for many advanced applications. Nano science is a study regarding the material, particle, and structure on the nano meter i.e 10-9 (one millionth of a millimeter) scale. Nanotechnology is application of nano science by using nanomaterials and nanoparticles in advanced products. Nowadays this technology is one of the latest innovation in this time by every technological field. One of the extensive applications of nano technology in the textiles. By using nanotechnology in Textile we can produce many advance materials and finishes at nano sensation level that can be used for high end applications such as protective textiles for medical and chemical professionals, breathable sportswear, and especially for filtration upto nano scale. Nanofibers show many unique characteristics which makes them useful in various applications as stated above. Electrospinning is the most versatile technology that is used today for the synthesis of nano scale material and for engineering nano scale materials on textile substrate. The nanomaterial which is generated by this technology has a larger surface area and highly porous which makes it suitable for advanced applications. The various electrospinning techniques provide directly nonwoven to the order of few nanometers,which provides ease of functionalisation for various purposes and superior mechanical properties. The electrospinning machine can varied in different ways for combining material properties with different morphological structures for superior products. Also by using some special compatible additives during electrospinning, we can produce a superior product for specific applications. This paper includes a study of advanced techniques for the production of nanomaterials in Textile through nanotechnology and its various applications.

Keywords: Nano-technology, Nanofibres, Electrospinning, PVDF

We all knows the existing textilefibres and filaments manufactured that limits to the certain denier size i.e upto micro levels only but by this technology we can reach our textiles to the extra ordinary applications at nano scale and also by this we can give a certain finishes to the textile substrate of nano particals for advanced applications. Now a days, textile products are finding applications in many advanced and technical areas of applications. Whereas, Nano-science and Nano-technology have shown their effective use for production of some textile materials up to nanometer scalewhich exhibits the high surface area and highly porousfibres that shows the suitability to the advanced applications. Most of the textile products that are produced up to nanometer scale are in the form of nanofibres or nanomembranes. The unique properties shown by these materials provides unusual mechanical, thermal, biological, optical, magnetic, and electrical properties because of theirnanoscopic dimensions and specially developed structures. There are a number of techniques capable of fabricating nanofibers. These techniques include bicomponent extrusion, phase separation, template synthesis, drawing, meltblowing, electrospinning, and centrifugal spinning. The nanofibres have potential to being successfully utilized for manufacturing protective clothing for medical, chemical and military professionals, breathable sportswear, filtration up to nanometer scale, biomedical products, thermal resistant products, tissue engineering, and such many high end applications. Theseadvanced applicative textiles are successfully manufactured by using the nano-technology and by reinforcement of nano fibresand nano particals additives in to the textile's. Especially, nanofibres of synthetic polymers PVDF, PAN and bio-compatible polymers such as Cellulose acetate(CA), poly-caprolactone and PVA(poly-vinyle alcohole) and polylactide(PLA) these are the biodegradable polymers used for fabrication of new materials for medical use and for tissue engineering application hence,  produced by electrospinning technology have grate poential to produce advanced nanomaterialsfor high end applications.

Need of Nano-material:
There are some limitations associated with conventional textile processes that it can produce filaments upto microdenier level only. If we produce a fabric from this filaments it will not give pore size upto nanometer scale. To get the smaller pore size we need to increase the number of layers of this material which increases its thickness and mass per unit area and this becomes more difficult to utilize in certain advanced applications. Whereas in the case of nanomaterial, especially electrospun nanomaterial, will provide pore size in nanometers at very low thickness with very low mass per unit area. Which makes it more suitable for fine level of filtration.Whenever there is need of filtration of some material upto nanometer scale there is need of nanomaterial with nano/micro pores. For example, in the case of artificial kidney a membrane should allow the waste material to get pass through but it should not allow blood particle or useful proteins get passed. Also for mask membrane should not allow bacteria or any toxic gas to be get pass through.A nano-membrane is also a breathable material which is permeable to water vapour or gases but impermeable to water or any liquid. Nanotechnology can be used for engineering the advanced effect to the ordinary textile products such as softness, durability, and one of the extensive property of nano-fibers is breathability and in developing advanced characteristics that is, water repellency, fire retardency, antimicrobial resistance and many advanced application in medical industry.   This characteristics helps to utilize them in protective clothing of medical professionals, where it should provide protection from any infectious fluids along with desired comfort level. Also some repellent finishes can be done by means of nanocoating which repelles the blood and prevent to get accumulated or penetrated through the protective clothing of medical professionals. Therefore there is need for production of nanomaterial which can fulfill above all requirements which a conventional textile material can not provide.

Methods of Nano-fibre Manufacturing:
There are a number of techniques capable of fabricating nanofibers. These techniques include bicomponent extrusion, phase separation, template synthesis, drawing, meltblowing, electrospinning, and centrifugal spinning. Among these electrospinning is a smartand productive method to attain nanofibers according to our requirements for end application and  as it is simple to useand attain.It directly gives the output in the form of non-woven mats which has nano gaps between the nano fibres that will gives the better properties with a wonderful volume/area ratio along with large surface area and highly porous structure.

Electrospinning is a widely used method for the electrostatic production of polymer nanofibers. Formhals published the first patent for preparing artificial threads by electrospinning in 1934. The use of two techniques namely electrospray and spinning makes this technology termed as ‘Electrospinning’. In this process a high voltage (i.e killo-voltage) is applied to form an electrcally charged stream of polymeric solution. A high electric field is applied to the droplet of a fluid which may be a melt or solution coming out from the tip of a die, which act as one of the electrodes. This leads to the droplet deformation and finally to the ejection of a charged jet from the tip of the cone accelerating towards the counter electrode leading to the formation of continuous fibres.

Electrospinning of PAN nano Fiber Mat

Factors Affecting Electrospinning Process:
There are numerous parameters that can affect the conversion of polymer solutions into nanofibers during electrospinning. These parameters include governing variables for instance applied voltage at the spinneret, the tip-to-ground distance, the hydrostatic pressure in the capillary tube, surrounding condition for instance solution air flow, temperature, and humidity in the electrospinning chamber, and the solution (spinning dope) properties such as viscosity, conductivity, surface tension and elasticity.
Spinnability of various polymers has been widely investigated and it is found that electrospinning of PEO solutions (using the co-solvents of water and ethanol) that have viscosities between 1-20 poises and a surface tension in the range of 35-55 dynes/cm was fiber-formable. However, cellulose acetate electrospinning in acetone/DMAc (2:1), viscosities range 1.2-10.2 poises, were fiber-formable. These two cases show that the spinnable set of conditions for different polymer solutions is unique.

The unique properties shown by these materials provides unusual mechanical, thermal,
biological, optical, magnetic, and electrical properties because of their minute dimensions
and specially developed structures.The nanofibres have potential to being successfully
utilized for manufacturing protective clothing for medical, chemical and militaryprofessionals, breathable sportswear, filtration up to nanometer scale, biomedical products,thermal resistant products, tissue engineering, and such many high end applications.

PROJECT- Application of PVDF nanofibres on 60/40 P/C stripe shirting fabric as a breathable waterproof fabric.

Preparation of PVDF+DMF solution with 7% to 12% concentration for electrospinning solution preperation and viscocity maintained like honey which is essential for spinning.

Poly-Vinyl Acetate nano fiber with antibiotic deposition of 100% Cotton woven and Knitted Fabrics

Medical Sector:

Artificial Kidney as a fitering media for dialysis operation 

In medical sector nanomaterial have shown potential to be utilized for many advanced applications such as artificial kidney, artificial lung, artificial liver, tissue engineering, in protective clothing, masks, etc. The function of the artificial kidney is achieved by circulating the blood through a nanomembrane, which may be either a flat sheet or a bundle of hollow fibres that retain the unwanted waste materials. The blood is passed through the membrane and because of the porous structure of the membrane the waste material threw out from the pores and thepurified blood is further pumped into human body. The material used in dialysis membranes are regenerated cellulose, cellulose triacetate, acrylonitrile copolymer, poly (methyl methacrylate), ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer, polusulfone and polyamide which can be grouped as cellulose and synthetic polymer systems. Eighty per cent of the dialysers use cellulose materials which have excellent permeability for low molecular substances. Pore sizes of membranes vary between 1 - 3 nm for conventional membranes and 4 - 8 nm for large pore membranes.
Similarly it works in the case of artificial lung.
In tissue engineering, a highly porous artificial extracellular matrix is needed to support and guide cell growth and tissue regeneration.Natural and synthetic biodegradable polymers have been used to create such scaffolds.Nanofiber scaffolds are used in bone tissue engineering to mimic the natural extracellular matrix of the bones. The bone tissue is arranged either in a compact or trabecular pattern and composed of organized structures that vary in length from the centimeter range all the way to the nanometer scale.

Study of properties of Electrospun curcumin loaded cellulose acetate deposition on textile woven fabric for wound healing.
In this application of curcumin loaded cellulose acetate(CA) nanofibres mat promising application in soft tissue repair. In this various concentrations of curcumin (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%).
Wound healing is a complex tissue regeneration process that promotes the growth of new tissues to provide the body with necessary barriers from the outside. Among all available current technologies electrospun fibres exhibits several characteristics that may provide novel replacement of dressing materials.

Electrospinning of curcumin loaded cellulose acetate mat on 100% cotton knitted and woven sample:

Electronic and sensors Sector:
Interest in piezoelectric materials PVDF polymer, also referred to as ferroelectric materials,isgrowing due to the materials unique ability to convert mechanical strain energyinto electrical energy. This capability can beutilized in applications such as energy harvesting devices, sensors, and biomedical and tissue engineering. Inversely, piezoelectric materials can also be electrically activated to create a mechanical response in the form of vibrations caused by small, local surface deformations and therefore, have potential as a membrane material in water filtration. Polymers such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), a commonly used polymer in commercial membranes, can crystallize in a piezoelectric phase if an electric field is present during crystallization. Which can be utilized as highly efficient electronic sensers for many advanced requirements.
By using graphene as additive during electrospinning of PVDF makes the resultant material conductive. Since the conductive material is incorporated within the smart textile, it ensures that sensors are repeatedly positioned in the same location on the body. This will lead to improved accuracy of the sensor by preventing sensor misplacement. It also adds a negligible weight and thickness to the clothes and multiple electronic circuitry patterns can be placed on a garment in a single setup. As an example, wireless wearable sensors for home monitoring of physiological data of a heart could, for instance, overcome shortcomings of currently available technology such as “Holter monitoring” and significantly improve the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Another example would be for a patient with a motor disorder such as Parkinson’s disease, where the monitoring of physiological movement could facilitate medication titration as the disease progresses.

We can use some additives in the polymer at the time of synthesis of nanomaterial which enables the material to be used for some special purposes. For example a graphene additive can be used to make material electrical conductive. Silica nano particles are added to make the material highly thermal resistant. For  This material performs very efficiently upto 1000 degree centigrade temperature because of which it can be successfully utilized in advanced applications where high thermal resistivity is needed. Similarly we can use chitin as additive which makes the material antimicrobial. Also crucumin powder can be added to impart more efficient wound healing characteristics into the material. These both advanced products can be successfully implemented for treatment of the patient and a fast recovery can be ensured.

The nano material have brought revolution in the filtration sector because of its accessibility to achieve any desired pore size in the material. With help of advanced manufacturing technology we can produce tailor made nanomaterial which possess desired characteristics and can be used for advanced specific applications.
Recent research from a team at The University of Manchester has demonstrated the potential of providing clean drinking water obtained from sea water through the use of graphene-based nano membranes. This can solve the problem of availability of drinking water in the future. Also if nonwoven fabric is coated with PVDF nanofibres then it can provide an efficient filter for the separation of ethanol from water.
In coal mines along with air many other harmful gases are present such as methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, hydrogen sulphide, etc. These all gases are toxic and harmful for the human being, which makes the coal mine workers unsafe to work in the mines. But a nanomembrane can be produced using activated charcoal as additive which is incorporated into a mask and that can filter out all the toxic gases and fresh air is made available to be inhaled by workers of coal mines.

Future Scope
Nanomaterial have very great scope in future because of their potential to be utilized for many advanced applications in various sectors. Nanotechnology is an enabling technology that makes existing applications work better or more efficiently.For example, Aerogel is a synthetic porous ultralight material derived from a gel, in which the liquid component for the gel has been replaced with a gas. The result is a solid with extremely low density and low thermal conductivity. Because of its specific characteristics it is widely used for many advanced applications such as insulation to skylight, a absorber for cleaning up oil spills, filtration of heavy metals, impedance matchers for transducers, speakers and range finders, etc. Besides all these advanced applications aerogel have one major disadvantage that is dusting of aerogel. We can coat aerogel with nanofibre membrane which overcomes the problem of dusting and also do not affect to its inherent useful characteristics.Also we can produce biodegradable nanomaterials which can be used in biodegradable products. These enables to produce biodegradable tissue engineered scaffolds which can bring revolution in the medical industry.

As the problems in many fields have increased the requirements from the products have been also increased so that it is needed to make the product advanced. Whereas advancement in nanoscience and nanotechnology in textile can successfully make the products advanced and suitable for many advanced applications. The advancement of technologies for production of nanomaterials have made easier to produce a tailored product at higher production rate with desired characteristics. This have made easier to utilize the textile nanomaterials for advanced applications. Textile industry has already familiar with the use of nanotechnology in advanced application in textiles. With the use of this, we can compose the nanofibres nonwoven mat by reinforcing the additives of curcumin natural drug, synthetic drug for wound healing, coating of nano fibres of PVDF and PAN for breathability and water repellency, cellulose acetate and poly-vinyl-acetate as a biocompatibility, UV protection by the use of Tio2 nanofibres finish on textile and by use of additive of graphene and sio2 nano particles for advanced application. Research involving nanotechnology to improve performances or to create advanced use in textile material.

Project testings

  • 5% Curcumin loaded nanofibres cotton+CA SEM images.
  • Scanning Electron Microscope
Cellulose Acetate (CA) & Curcumin loaded nano fibrous material surface morphological study was evaluated by using SEM.

“Technology of nano-fibers: Production techniques and properties - Critical review” by Mohammed Sakhawy published, in ‘Journal of the Textile Association · May 2017’.
Optimizing electrospinning parameters for piezoelectric PVDF nanofiber membranes” by S. Gee, B. Johnson, A.L. Smith, published in ‘Journal of Membrane Science’.
“Nanofibre Manufacture, Properties & Application” by Tong Lins, David Lukes, published in ‘Journal of Nnomaterials’.
Self projects on nanofibres mat formation for advanced application in textiles.
“application of Nanotechnology in modern textiles : a review  by A.R.M ayatollah Hosne Asif and Md. Zayedul hasam”.

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