Spinning Maintenance and Management

Maintenace and Management in Spinning mill

Spinning Maintenance and Management
Sanyog Chandpurkar
Department of Textile Technology
Shri Guru Gobind Singhji Institute of Engineering and Technology, (SGGS I E&T ), Vishnupuri,Nanded, (Maharashtra State, India)
Machines play a major role in determining the productivity of an industry, the quality of its products, power consumption and working atmosphere. All these factors are dependent on the mechanical condition of the machine in spinning units it is also very important that the condition of the major machines is maintained by systematic and well-planned maintenance practice. This chapter deals with such important aspects of maintenance management as maintenance scheduling. Maintenance costs, the efficiency of maintenance function assessment of quality of maintenance etc. modern practices such as total productive maintenance (TPM). 5s and computerized maintenance management have also been covered. Proper maintenance management helps companies to improve profitability. Product quality and customer relationship.

In case of modern textile machinery, with their rising cost, complications, and automation, the necessity of maintenance has become very severe.The machine plays a very important role in determining the productivity of the mill, quality of products, power consumption & so on. Hence, in spinning units, it is important that condition of major machines is maintained by systematic and well-scheduled maintenance practices.Also, there is some economic pressure, which forces mill to use the high capital of machinery to full extent, so that it will face competitors. Due to the importance of maintenance, it can be considered as ‘heart of productivity’. If maintenance and replacement of breakdown parts are neglected, then it may cost more than cost possible by good maintenance.

Objective of Maintenance

  1. To maintain machines at maximum operating speed and efficiency.
  2. To minimize the maintenance cost.
  3. To ensure best possible quality of output product.
  4. To reduce lead time and waste occurs due to the breakdown of parts.

Types of Maintenance:
There are two main types of maintenance:

  1. Breakdown Maintenance
  2. Planned Maintenance

Breakdown Maintenance
The breakdown may occur at any time unexpectedly and handling such breakdowns is known as ‘breakdown maintenance’. In this type, attention is given to machine for maintenance only when the breakdown of parts occurs.

Planned Maintenance:
In this type, maintenance is carried out as per predetermined plan. It has following five types:

1-Routine Maintenance
This maintenance type is performed to ensure efficiency of the machine. It is carried on the basis of a predetermined schedule. General lubrication, cleaning, cot replacement, cots buffing, clothing, grinding etc. fall under the category.
2-Preventive Maintenance
As the title indicates, it is performed to prevent damage to parts and machines. In this case, faults are discovered and remedial action is taken before it affects production and quality. For this method, a skilled technician is required, with the standard checklist and with proper tools, equipment, gauges.
3-Predictive Maintenance
From this method, we will come to know, what is happening with machine parts, during actual operation of the machine. It assesses the effectiveness of routine & preventive maintenance.
4-Remedial Maintenance
In this, the parts of the machine are studied and change in design, material, a method is done as per requirement, for improving operation. Design, material & method selected should be such that, it should withstand increased loads, speeds with the reduction in wear & tear.
5-Restorative Maintenance
It is also known as ‘semi-overhauling’. In this method, drastic change in the machine by replacement of a major part is done. This type is expensive and time-consuming. The advantage of this can be taken for automation of particular machine.


The maintenance function of a company run on modern principles gives major weightage to production availability, to machine performance rates, to cost of operations and of maintenance.Maintenance of machines includes all efforts directed to keep all the machines in good health at minimum cost. This leads to smooth and efficient working of an industrial plant, thus helping to improve the productivity and hence the profitability of company.Effective maintenance is defined as that which gives the maximum level of availability as well as performance of plant. This is achieved through maintenance management, involving planning, organizing, control and execution directed at specified objective that ensure so that the company achieves its business objectives.

A sound maintenance policy should have the following objective in a spinning mill.

  • To maximize the service life of all assets i.e. production machinery and ancillary equipment’s.
  • To assure optimum availability of installed machinery so that the maximum profitable return on investments can be achieved.
  • To ensure full safety for personnel dealing with machinery and equipment’s.
  • To permit the highest production rates consistent with good yarn quality.
  • To ensure minimum incidence of faults in the yarn being sold.

Condition Monitoring
Condition monitoring is another method used for planned replacement. This can be used wherever the failure development process can be accessed; where the failure mechanism gives some form of early warning signal through detectable changes in the condition of the machine part. This detection can be visual etc or with the help of condition monitoring tool.
Three requirements must be fulfilled for the use of condition monitoring process.

  1. The rate of deterioration must be slow enough to permit detection of failure development, and then to make use of the result to plan and to rectify the fault before failure occurs.
  2. The deterioration process must exhibit sufficient and detectable change in condition parameters that are relevant.
  3. Proper measuring equipment / tool or adequate competence must be available to detect and to interpret the condition.For basic method can be used to do this, and these involve measurement/ assessment of the component function by different means: visual inspection, leakage, thermal, vibration and noise. The component is checked tom make sure that it perform the required function.

Machinery Audit
It means a thorough examination of the mechanical condition of the machine in order to rectify the defect or improve the quality of the product. Machinery audit helps in improving the existing maintenance procedure. It also helps in early detection and prevention of mechanical fault, which may go unidentified, undetected for too long if there is a total reliance on instrumental examination of the machine.

Machinery audit should generally cover the following aspects.
A critical review of current maintenance program such as method of operations, maintenance schedule, inspection procedure, staff employed and organization.
A detailed investigation of the machine condition in different departments like machine alignment, wear and tear of components, damage etc.
General aspects relating to maintenance tidiness, housekeeping, tool and equipment used.

Proper maintenance schedule is always following by a suitable record keeping which is essential for preventive routine/normal and forecast maintenance. For these reasons following records should be maintained.

  • Machinery history register
  • Schedule register
  • Corrective action register
  • Indent register
  • Maintenance cost record
  • Budget
  • These records help in deciding
  • Frequency of inspections/checkups.
  • Extent of reduction in fault reoccurrence.
  • Wear and tear of parts.
  • Cost incurred.

Maintainability needs to be assessed through analysis after every one or two year, and improved further on the basis of such analysis.
The purpose of analysis is as follows:

  • To reduce the down time.
  • To reduce work load.
  • To assure product quality.
  • To improve work environment and safety for maintenance.
  • Important points to be considered during annual analysis are:
  • To uncover any special needs for the system for streamlining the performance of maintenance.
  • To identify tools and remedies necessary for improved maintenance.
  • Such detailed analysis would assist in determining the overall effectiveness of maintenance schedule in a better way.

Industrial production is a process depending on men and machine. In textile mill, men and machine are to sides of a coin: smooth functioning of the mill depends on science, technology and engineering on one hand. Studies have shown that accidents occurs mainly due to unsafe actions, unsafe conditions and carelessness negligence. The textile industry is today equipped with complicated and fast moving production machines. So it necessary that everyone follows safety precautions in order to prevent accidents.

Accidents: Causes and Prevention
An accidents is unplanned and unexpected event that causes injury to a persons or persons and damage to property and damage to environment.Accidents occur as a result of unsafe action or due to exposure to unsafe mechanical and physical condition. Accidents can also happen due to human failure.To prevent accidents, one should examine how they are caused, and determine what the exact causes are, and then take appropriate actions to eliminate the identified causes. Two major factors can give rise to accidents.

Unsafe actions
Unsafe actions may be result of lack awareness or lack of knowledge about the right practice or lack of skill on the part os a Worker.

Studies have shown that more accidents are caused due to negative attitude and then due to bad, unsafe habits at workplace.

  • Over confidence: ‘It could never happen to me’
  • Stubbornness: ‘I will do it in my own way’
  • Sarcasm: ‘why should I bother about it’
  • carelessness: what safety! Safety is kid stuff.

Unsafe mechanical/ physical condition.

  • Inadequate illumination
  • Lack of or inadequate personal protection.
  • Poor housekeeping; defective condition, rough, sharp, slippery etc.
  • Inadequate guarded machine parts etc.

Electrical safety

  • Failure to take precaution against electrical hazards may lead to serious injuries. Statistics show that 15% to 20% of electrical accidents turn out to be fatal. The most common electrical injuries are shock or burn.
  • Tips on electrical safety
  • Permit only qualified persons to undertake electrical repairs.
  • Do not take short cuts follow safe procedure.
  • Ensure that extension wire is free from cuts, damage insulation, kinks or joints.
  • Check that the pins of socket are not loose.
  • Ensure easy access to shut off power supply.

Precautions during running machine

  • Do not touch the running portion of any machine
  • Never open or remove safety covers on running machine
  • Do not wear loose clothing-loosely fitting jackets, long sleeves etc.
  • Never put any tool or science or comb etc. in an open

Implementation stage
There is no readymade formula for implementing TPM in an organization. Also overnight implementation is not possible. Top management should have patience to get the full benefit of TPM. Each organization should establish and develop implementation methodology depending on the requirement, available resources and complexity of the maintenance operation to make the project viable. However, some of the important aspects pertaining to implementation of TPM are discussed here under:

Good housekeeping:
TPM starts with Good housekeeping in workplace. An organization can establish and maintain a good housekeeping based on 5S principle, which includes:Seiri ( ie, Sorting out the unnecessary items from the necessary items thus saving in space, Seiton ( ie, defining storage space place for every item, which lead to saving of time in searching spare parts, accessories.) Seiso (ie, thorough cleaning of workstation. This results in safer work place, reduced contamination in the output and less quality complaint) Seiketsu (ie, Standardization of the above mentioned activities, resulting in improvement in the house keeping. Shitsuke (this implies sustaining the improvement to make the work place more disciplined and organized).

Preparation and adherence of maintenance manual:
In order to bring transparency in the maintenance process and to make it systematic a maintenance job manual for each production department/section is to be prepared .The maintenance manual clearly specify to the extent possible the following:

  • The type of autonomous maintenance to be carried out by the trained machine operator.
  • Activities related to condition based monitoring and predictive maintenance to be carried out.
  • Need based preventive maintenance plan and schedule of each activity.
  • Required level of inventory of critical items and their Economic order Quantity and lead time for procurements consistent with Lean Manufacturing System.
  • Work instruction for the maintenance personnel.
  • Man hour required to carry out each operation.
  • Necessary records to be maintained for future reference.

Coordination with SQC department:
The activities of the SQC department need to be reoriented to synchronize with the maintenance activities. This will help the management to review the effectiveness of maintenance operations and make necessary changes wherever required.

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  1. All the details look good and will be useful for all spinners