Spinning and Weaving of Jute

Textile Sphere Jute Spinning and Weaving

Spinning and Weaving of Jute
Yashashree Ingle
Department of Textile Technology
Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute,Mumbai,India
Spinning of Jute:
The most commonly operated jute spinning consist of two stages of carding followed by three stages of drawing and finally a spinning stage.
In the first carding stage, the long lengths of fiber are passed through a breaker card, which breaks the continuous mesh of fiber into separate fragments.

The following flow shows the process spinning for 100% jute yarn:
Textile Sphere Jute Spinning
Fig-Process flow of Jute Spinning

In the 3 drawing stages the movement of fiber is controlled by gill pins fixed to faller bars. At all stages, drafting is accompanied by appropriate doubling of input slivers. More recently, the open draft system is introduced whereby fiber control was effected either by double apron arrangement or single apron.

Modern development:
  • Development has also taken place in drawframe, in addition to the fixed drawframes autolevellers.
  • This machine automatically adjust the draft according to the thickness of output sliver and maintain a uniform density of sliver.
  • High speed ring spinning finer jute yarns are manufactured by UK and France.
  • Also SITRA has developed low cost spinning machine for fine count jute yarn.
  • The SITRA at Coimbatore has developed ring spinning frame to spun 100% fine jute yarn.

Some of the features of the SITRA jute frame include:
  • Double slided machine with sliver feeding creel arrangement (200 spindle / machine)
  • Optimum spinning geometry with 45 degree roller strand angle.
  • Angle of yarn pull is 28 degree and spinning angles are 21 degree( lappet bottom position)  and 25 degree( lappet top position)
  • Draft range is 15 to 20
  • Spindle speed 6000 to 65000rpm
  • Twist range is 3.0 to 12.0 TPI
  • Counts in range of 8 to 10 Ne

Fabric Production (Weaving and specifications):
Jute yarn can be woven on automatic power looms, shuttle less looms or hand looms. Jute is widely used because it is inexpensive, stronger and produce in a large quantity.

The following are different products in India:
  • Yarn twinner 13%
  • Diversified Products 9%
  • Hession cloth 23%
  • Carpet cloth 19%
  • Sacking 64%

The main purpose of warp yarn winding is to transfer yarn from the spinners or doublers package to another which can be used in the creel of the warping machine. ATIRA have developed an electronic yarn clearer this micro controller based system for the detection and clearing of objectionable faults such as thick and thin places in the blends of jute yarns.

Warping and Sizing of Jute Yarns:
The 2 types of warping sectional and beam warping are used to prepare jute and jute blends yarns for weaving. Jute yarns needs to be sized because they are hairy and they have low extensibility under tension. In Indian jute industry tamarind kernel powder( TKP) is used exclusively as the only suitable sizing material.

Weaving of Jute Yarn:

Shuttle Loom:
The shuttle loom is the oldest type of powerloom, it is effective but now-a-days it is not much used because it comes with certain disadvantage. They operate at 110 to 230 PPM which is lower than modern looms also they produce noise.

Shuttless Looms:
Gripper projectile loom and Rapier loom can be effectively used to weave jute yarn of any nature. There is only 1 kind of projectile loom used in the jute industry. Air jet looms with either single nozzle or multiple nozzle type.

Hand looms:
With the increase in diversification of the use of jute in various non traditional applications the end uses such as curtains, upholstery and certain heavier furnishing fabrics provided by the handloom and it is still in practice.

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