# Textile Composite and its Calculation

Textile Composites:
Textile Composites are the structure formed by matrix and reinforcement.

Interface:
Bonding between the matrix and reinforcement with physical and chemical bonding.

Classification of Composites:

On basis of Matrix:
Metal Matrix Composites
Ceramic Matrix Composites
Polymer Matrix Composites
Carbon fiber reinforced composite
Carbon Carbon Composite

On basis of reinforcement:
Powder
Fiber
Yarn
Fabric
Non wovens

Calculation and method for Jute Fiber Composite:
Terminologies:
1-Vf = Volume of reinforcement
2-Vm = Volume of Matrix
3-Vc = Volume of Composite

Vc = Vf + Vm

1-vf = Volume fraction of reinforcement
2-vm = Volume fraction of matrix
3-vc = Volume fraction of Composite

Composite Mold:
For experiment volume of mold = l×b×h
= 20 cm × 20 cm ×0.5 cm
= 200 cc
Let us assume value of vf = 0.2 and vm = 0.8
vm+vf = 1

Volume of reinforcement = Volume of Mold × vf
= 200 × 0.2
= 40 cc
As reinforcement is jute fiber we cannot measure it in cc, so we will be converting cc into grams by multiplying volume of reinforcement with fiber density.
Volume of reinforcement in grams = 40 × 1.47 ( Jute density)
= 58.8 Grams
Hence 58.8 grams of fiber will be required now we will calculate the matrix.

Volume of Matrix = Volume of Mold × vm
= 200 × 0.8
= 160cc
Hence we will be require 160 cc of matrix i.e 160 ml

We can either use Epoxy and Hardner combination as matrix or Unsaturated polyester along with Accelerator ( MEKP) and  Promoter ( Cobalt Salt) as matrix.

Calculation for Epoxy and Hardner:
Epoxy required = 144 ml
Hardener required (10% on v/v of matrix) = 16 ml (10% of 160 ml)

Calculation for Unsaturated Polyester:
Unsaturated polyester required = 160- (16 ml+1.6 ml)
= 142.4 ml
MEKP ( 10% on v/v of Matrix)= 16 ml
Cobalt Salt = 1.6 ml

Method for preparation of Composite:
• Take Jute fiber and cut them into 1 to 1.5 inches
• Followed by individualization of fiber on miniature carding machine
• Collect the fiber from the card and prepare hand web
• As per the calculation prepare 4 web of 20 grams each (58.8 or 60 grams)
• Prepare the bath with epoxy and hardner
• Apply wax on the mold
• Divide 160 ml of matrix into 40 ml each
• Start Sandwiching the fiber web  and matrix
• Compress the sandwich on the machine with 5 to 10 bar pressure ( It should be progressive should not spilled out)
• Keep the composite for curing process ( 24 hours)

Testing of Composites (Mechanical):
• Tensile Strength(MPa)
• Tensile Modulus (MPa/GPa)
• Flexural Strength (MPa)
• Flexural Modulus (MPa/GPa)
• Impact Strength  (KJ/Meter sq.)

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