Dyeing of Cotton fabric with Onion Peel Extract and Peppermint Finish

cotton fabric dyed with onion peel extract
Dyeing of Cotton fabric with Onion Peel Extract and Peppermint Finish 
Samiksha J, Aavishkar M, Shivam Y, Aditya A, Kiran P, Mrunal M
Department of Textile Technology
Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, Mumbai, Maharashtra State

This project aims to use of  Natural dyes on organic cotton.
  • To dye cotton fabric without any chemical dyes.
  • To dye cotton fabric with natural mordant.
  • To finish naturally dyed cotton fabric with peppermint oil.
  • To test samples for various properties.
  • To keep the process as natural as possible.

Material Specification:

  • Material  of the Fabric –  Cotton fabric
  • Ends per Inch (EPI) – 100
  • Picks per Inch (PPI) – 88
  • Warp Count – 55.67 Ne
  • Weft Count – 55.67 Ne
  • Warp Twist – ‘S’ Twist
  • Weft Twist – ‘S’ Twist
  • Thickness of Fabric – 0.55mm
  • Warp Crimp % - 13%
  • Weft Crimp % - 15%
  • Weight of Fabric/Sq. Mtr. – 0.11kg

  • Steps taken for acid desizing :
  • Dilute sulphuric acid or hydrochloric acid may be used to hydrolyze starch from the sized fabric.
  • \A 0.25%-0.5% solution of the acid at room temperature (30) is suitable for this process
  • The cloth is impregnated with the dilute acid solution in two or three bowl padding mangle and then stored for 8-12 hours  in a closed concrete pit.

  • Weight of the fabric: 128gm
  • HCL: 25.6ml
  • Amount of water: 4114.4ml 
  • Scouring agent: 12.8 gm
  • Scouring agent (8%):128 ml

Process of Bleaching:
  • Boiling with an alkali.
  • Bleaching with an organic colouring matter by means of hypochlorite orsome other oxidizing agent.
  • Scouring i.e. treating with weal hydrochloric or sulphuric acid.

  • Scouring agent: 128ml 
  • Soda ash: 256ml
  • Hydrogen perioxide: 106.6ml
  • Sodium chloride: 64ml
  • Peroxide stabilizer:640ml   

Dyeing of Cotton:
Cotton has different structure and properties from wool. It is composed of glucoside units. It can exibit coordinative and intermolecular hydrogen bonding with the mordant agent and dyestuff. In this work, the best dyeing was obtained with pre-mordantation and together mordantation methods.

  • Cotton (1.5 g 50 cm²) is heated at 90ºC for 1h in 100ml 0.1M of mordant solution.
  • After cooling, the cotton is taken out; washed with distilled water and dried.
  • Then, it is put into 100ml of dye-bath and heated at 90ºC for 1h. 
  • It is allowed to cool and then filtered
  • Finally, the dyed-cotton is washed with distilled water and dried.


  • Onion skins(the more the better).
  • Water to cover the onion skin.
  • Use water to a boil and let simmer for an 1 hour.
  • Removal of the onion skins is an alternative from the pot soaking the dyestuff a few days before or aid in extracting color from dyestuff.
  • Evenly soak fibers in hot water before placing them in the dye bath (this helps achieve even color)
  • Place pre-wet fibers into the dye bath. 
  • The crowding of dye bath should be avoided and Heat dye bath for 1 hour, using a spoon or stick to submerge fibers and free air bubbles to achieve even color .
  • In order to get brighter results let the fibers cool in the dye bath. 
  • Most of the artist let the bath for longer time and cool overnight or even a few days, longer is stronger.
  • Rinse the fiber with cold water until water runs clear hang to dry.

Finishing Process:
  • Prepare the solution peppermint oil and water.
  • Immerse the dyed fabric into the solution.
  • Squeeze the fabric at some intervals so the the solution should  penetrate in the fabric.
  • Fold the fabric.
  • Now pass the fabric through padding mangle machine for no of times.
  • Dry the fabric entirely with the help of heating equipments.

Testing Results:

Washing Fastness:
The Dyed samples are washed with Non-Ionic soap at room temperature for 45 mins.
Then the samples are compared with staining and change in colour scale and results are noted.

Staining Scale Reading
Change in Colour
Onion skin

Rubbing Fastness:
The dyed Samples are rubbed on rubbing machine for 20 cycles with grey fabric as a base.
The  Samples then compared with staining and change in colour scale and results are noted.
Staining Scale Reading
Change in Colour Reading
Onion skin

Light Fastness:
The dyed samples are attached on black craft paper and paper is folded in quarter part and placed in light fastness tester for 17 hrs. Then the samples are removed and compared with change in colour scale and results are noted.
Change in Colour Scale
Onion skin

  • Onion skins can be successfully used as dye for dyeing of cotton fabric .
  • Use of alum is possible for dyeing of cotton fabric with onion  skin.
  • Onion skin dyed samples exhibit an excellent,Light, Wash & Rubbing fastness.

Post a Comment